Authors: Francisco Pena-Pereira, Carlos Bendicho, Dragana Mutavdžić Pavlović, Antonio Martín-Esteban, Myriam Díaz Álvarez, Yuwei Pan, Jon Cooper, Zhugen Yang, Ivo Safarik, Kristyna Pospiskova, Marcela A. Segundo, Elefteria Psillakis
Journal: Analytica Chimica Acta, 2020
The determination of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in environmental samples has become a challenging and critical issue. The present work focuses on miniaturized analytical strategies reported in the literature for the determination of CECs. The first part of the review provides brief overview of CECs whose monitoring in environmental samples is of particular significance, namely personal care products, pharmaceuticals, endocrine disruptors, UV-filters, newly registered pesticides, illicit drugs, disinfection by-products, surfactants, high technology rare earth elements, and engineered nanomaterials. Besides, an overview of downsized sample preparation approaches reported in the literature for the determination of CECs in environmental samples is provided. Particularly, analytical methodologies involving microextraction approaches used for the enrichment of CECs are discussed. Both solid phase- and liquid phase-based microextraction techniques are highlighted devoting special attention to recently reported approaches. Special emphasis is placed on newly developed materials used for extraction purposes in microextraction techniques. In addition, recent contributions involving miniaturized analytical flow techniques for the determination of CECs are discussed. Besides, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of point of need and portable devices have been identified and critically compared with chromatographic methods coupled to mass chromatography. Finally, challenging aspects regarding miniaturized analytical methods for determination of CECs are critically discussed.