Authors: Carlos Bendicho, Isela Lavilla
Book: Reference module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Ed. Elsevier, pp. 1-9, 2013
This chapter provides an overview on ultrasound-assisted metal extraction in three areas: i) total metal determination; ii) elemental speciation, and iii) acceleration of sequential extraction schemes. Conditions for total metal extraction are highlighted with respect to conventional pretreatments, that is, dry or wet ashing and slurry sampling. Ultrasonic baths, probes and cup horns are compared for this purpose. The influence of type of element and sample is discussed with numerous examples. The selective extraction of physicochemical forms of different elements is considered. The acceleration of different sequential extraction schemes that are applied for metal partitioning in environmental samples can be also found in this chapter.