Authors: Carlos Bendicho, Isela Lavilla
Book: Reference module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, Ed. Elsevier, 2013
This chapter provides an overview on ultrasound-assisted extraction for pretreatment of solid samples. Effects of ultrasound cavitation on chemical systems, in special on heterogeneous media, are considered. The main ultrasound processors used for these analytical applications are described: baths, probes and cup horns. Variables influencing ultrasound-assisted extraction such as sonication time, ultrasound amplitude, extraction solvent, particle size and solid concentration in the liquid are highlighted. Selected applications, including extraction of organic compounds, trace elements, metal species and geochemical phases (sequential extraction) can be also found in this chapter.