Facultade de Fisioterapia

Ultrasound-assisted single extraction tests for rapid assessment of metal extractability from soils by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

Authors: Inmaculada de la Calle, Noelia Cabaleiro, Isela Lavilla, Carlos Bendicho

Journal: Journal of Hazardous Materials, 260: 202-209, 09/2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.05.021


In this work, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) was employed for acceleration of metal extraction from soil samples. After extraction, multielemental analysis (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) of EDTA and acetic acid extracts was performed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF).

High-intensity ultrasonic processors, i.e. the ultrasonic probe (50 W) and the cup-horn sonoreactor (200 W) were applied. Both ultrasonic procedures were compared with a miniaturized version of the single extraction scheme proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing program (SM&T).

The extraction time with EDTA was reduced from 1 h (conventional procedure) to 2 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 10 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). The time required for acetic acid extraction was also reduced from 16 h (conventional procedure) to 6 min (ultrasonic probe) or to 30 min (cup-horn sonoreactor). In addition, the amount of sample and extractants was drastically reduced as a result of the miniaturization implemented in the developed approaches. The combination of UAE and TXRF allows assessing the potential metal mobility and bioavailability in a simple way.