Facultade de Fisioterapia

Speeding up of a three-stage sequential extraction method for metal speciation using focused ultrasound

Authors: B Perez-Cid, Isela Lavilla, Carlos Bendicho

Journal: Analytica Chimica Acta , 360: 35-41, 03/1998

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-2670(97)00718-6


Abstract

The three-stage sequential extraction procedure, proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), has been applied for speciation of copper, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in a sludge sample collected from an urban wastewater treatment plant. The conventional BCR sequential extraction method has been modified, in each stage, applying ultrasonic energy by means of a probe (handling at an adequate sonication power and time) in order to shorten the required operation time. Extractable metal contents obtained by both the conventional and the accelerated ultrasonic extraction method, were measured by Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Results obtained in each fraction by both methods were statistically compared (P=0.95) for all the studied elements and no significant differences were found except for chromium and zinc in the third fraction (oxidisable). For all metals the extraction percentage was>95%. The proposed accelerated sequential extraction method could be a valid alternative to the conventional shaking with a much shorter operating time.